Grade 4 – Strings

All instruments in the string family have their sound produced by bowing or plucking strings.

Typical orchestral instruments include (from highest in pitch to the lowest):

  • Violin
  • Viola
  • ‘Cello (the full name for this instrument is violoncello but cello is the generally accepted name)
  • Double Bass

All stringed instruments can produce more than 1 note at a time.

Clefs used by stringed instruments:

  • Violin – Treble Clef
  • Viola – Alto clef (sometimes treble clef)
  • ‘Cello – Bass clef (sometimes treble or tenor clefs)
  • Double Bass – Bass clef

con sordini (or con sord.) with mutes
senza sordini (or senza sord.) without mutes
pizzicato (or pizz.) pluck the strings
arco play with the bow (after an instruction to play pizzicato)
sul ponticello play near the bridge
sul G play on the G string
up bow
down bow